The revised TWS-4 is a norm-referenced test of spelling administered using a dictated word format. The TWS-4 now has two alternate or equivalent forms (A and B) which make it more useful in test-teach-test situations. The TWS-4 is appropriate for students in Grades 1 through 12 as well as for those in remedial programs. The TWS was developed after a review of 2,000 spelling rules. The words to be spelled are drawn from 10 basal spelling programs and popular graded word lists. Uses of the TWS-4:
The results of the TWS-4 may be used for four specific purposes: to identify students whose scores are significantly below those of their peers and who might need interventions designed to improve spelling proficiency, to determine areas of relative strength and weakness in spelling, to document overall progress in spelling as a consequence of intervention programs, and to serve as a measure for research efforts designed to investigate spelling.
The TWS-4 was standardized on more than 4,000 students. With rare exceptions, internal consistency and test-retest reliability coefficients are greater than .90. Evidence of content, criterion-related, and construct validity also is reported in the test manual. The TWS-4 can be administered in 20 minutes to either groups or individuals and yields the following educationally relevant information: standard scores, percentiles, spelling ages, and grade equivalents.
The characteristics of the normative sample approximate those for the projected 2000 U.S. census. The normative sample has been stratified by age relative to gender, urban or rural residence, geographic region, race, and ethnicity. Studies have been added to show no gender or racial bias, and more study from independent sources has been added supporting reliability and validity.
Complete TWS-4 Kit includes: Examiner’s Manual and 50 Summary/Response Forms, all in a sturdy storage box. (1999)